Chandigarh

Rose Garden Rose Garden
Capital : Chandigarh
Largest city : Chandigarh
District(s) : 1
Population : 900,635
Density : 7,900/km² (20,461/sq mi)
Language(s) : Punjabi, Hindi, English
Established : 1966

Chandigarh is a city in Northern India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana.However, administratively, the city is not under the jurisdiction of either state, it is administered by the Central government and hence classified as a union territory. The Governor of the Punjab is the Administrator of Chandigarh. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 and was known internationally for its architecture and urban design. The city was primarily designed by Le Corbusier, but it also has projects designed by architects such as Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry. The city tops the list of Inidan States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country. The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study. The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city. The city derives its name from a temple of goddess Chandi (the Chandi Mandir) located in nearby Panchkula District of Haryana. The word Chandigarh literally means "the fort of Chandi".

Chandigarh is known for its high standard of living with highest per capita income in the country and tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories with a Human Development Index of 0.674.

Chandigarh has two satellite cities (both of which share a border with it): Panchkula and Mohali. Sometimes, the triangle of these three cities is collectively called as the Chandigarh Tricity.

Brief History
After the partition of British India into the two nations of India and Pakistan in 1947, the region of Punjab was also split between India and Pakistan. The Indian state of Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition. After several plans to make additions to existing cities were found to be infeasible for various reasons, the decision to construct a new and planned city was undertaken.

Capitol Complex Capitol Complex
Of all the new town schemes in independent India, the Chandigarh project quickly assumed prime significance, because of the city's strategic location as well as Jawaharlal Nehru's (the first Prime Minister of independent India) personal interest in it. Commissioned by Nehru to reflect the new nation's modern, progressive outlook, Nehru famously proclaimed Chandigarh to be "unfettered by the traditions of the past, a symbol of the nation's faith in the future." Several buildings and layouts in Chandigarh were designed by the Swiss-born French architect and planner, Le Corbusier in the 1950s. Le Corbusier was in fact the second architect of the city, after the initial master plan was prepared by the American architect-planner Albert Mayer who was working with the Polish-born architect Matthew Nowicki. It was only after Nowicki's untimely death in 1950 that Le Corbusier was pulled into the project.

On 1 November 1966, the newly-formed Indian state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of the Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Hindi speaking state, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi-speaking majority and remained as the current day Punjab. However, the city of Chandigarh was on the border, and was thus created into a union territory to serve as capital of both these states. Chandigarh was due to be transferred to Punjab in 1986, in accordance with an agreement signed in August 1985 by Rajiv Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India at that time, with Sant Harchand Singh Longowal of the Akali Dal. This was to be accompanied by the creation of a new capital for Haryana, but the transfer has been delayed pending an agreement on which parts of the Hindi speaking areas of Abohar and Fazilka, currently part of Firozpur District of Punjab, should be transferred to Haryana in exchange.

On 15 July 2007,Chandigarh became the first Indian city to go smoke free.


Geography
Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas in Northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 114 km². and shares its borders with the states of Haryana in the south and Punjab in the north. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30.74° N 76.79° E. It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 feet). The surrounding districts are of Mohali and Ropar in Punjab and Panchkula in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh are not too far from its north.On 15th of july 2007 Chandigarh became the first smoke free city of the India.there are few places in the world which have this law implemented i.e anti tabbacco.

Climate
Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake
Chandigarh has a sub-tropical continental monsoon climate characterized by a seasonal rhythm: hot summers, slightly cold winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (0 °C to 46.5 °C). In winter, frost sometimes occurs during December and January. The average annual rainfall is recorded at 617 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the west.

Plan and Architecture
Taking over from Albert Mayer, Le Corbusier produced a plan for Chandigarh that conformed to the modernist city planning principles of CIAM, in terms of division of urban functions, an anthropomorphic plan form, and a hierarchy of road and pedestrian networks.

This vision of Chandigarh, contained in the innumerable conceptual maps on the drawing board together with notes and sketches had to be translated into brick and mortar. Le Corbusier retained many of the seminal ideas of Mayer and Nowicki, like the basic framework of the master plan and its components: the Capitol, City Center, besides the University, Industrial area, and linear parkland. Even the neighborhood unit was retained as the basic module of planning. However, the curving outline of Mayer and Nowicki was reorganized into a mesh of rectangles, and the buildings were characterized by an 'honesty of materials'. Exposed brick and boulder stone masonry in its rough form produced unfinished concrete surfaces, in geometrical structures. This became the architecture form characteristic of Chandigarh, set amidst landscaped gardens and parks.

The initial plan had two phases: the first for a population of 150,000 and the second taking the total population to 500,000. Le Corbusier divided the city into units called 'sectors', each representing a theoretically self-sufficient entity with space for living, working and leisure. The sectors were linked to each other by a road and path network developed along the line of the 7 Vs, or a hierarchy of seven types of circulation patterns. At the highest point in this network was the V1, the highways connecting the city to others, and at the lowest were the V7s, the streets leading to individual houses. Later a V8 was added: cycle and pedestrian paths.

Rock Garden Rock Garden
 
While leaving the bulk of the city's architecture to other members of his team, Le Corbusier took responsibility for the overall master plan of the city, and the design of some of the major public buildings including the High Court, Assembly, Secretariat, the Museum and Art Gallery, School of Art and the Lake Club. Le Corbusier's most prominent building, the Court House, consists of the High court, which is literally higher than the other, eight lower courts. Most of the other housing was done by Le Corbusier's cousin Pierre Jeanneret, the English husband and wife team of Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew, along with a team of nine Indian architects -- M. N. Sharma, A. Ar. Prabhawalkar, B. P. Mathur, Piloo Moody, U. E. Chowdhury, N. S. Lamba, J. L. Malhotra, J. S. Dethe and Aditya Prakash.  
The city in its final form, while not resembling his previous city projects like the Ville Contemporaine or the Ville Radieuse, was an important and iconic landmark in the history of town planning. It continues to be an object of interest for architects, planners, historians and social scientists.

Gardens
Rock Garden, Sector 1
Rajendra Park, Sector 1
Bougenvilla Garden, Sector 3
Japanese Garden, Sector 16
Leisure Valley, Sector 10
Fragrance Garden, Sector 36
Topiary Garden, Sector 35
Musical Fountain Park, Sector 33
Sukhna Lake Park, Sector 6
Cactus Garden, Panchkula
Rose Garden, Sector 16
Silvi Park, Phase 10 Mohali
Botanical Garden, Lahora Khuda