Chhattisgarh

Chitrakote Water Falls Chitrakote Water Falls
Capital : Raipur
Largest city : Raipur
District(s) : 18
Population : 20,795,956 (17th)
Density : 108/km² (280/sq mi)
Language(s) : Chhattisgarhi,Hindi
Established : 2000-11-01

  Chhattisgarh state lies in central India, it was formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. Raipur serves as its capital. It is the 10th largest state of India by area. Chhattisgarh takes its name from 36 (Chattis is thirty-six in Hindi and Garh is Fort) princely states in this region from very old times. It borders Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra on the west, Andhra Pradesh on the south, Orissa on the east, Jharkhand o and Uttar Pradesh on the north.

The Chhattisgarhi language, part of the East-Central group of Indo-Aryan languages, is the predominant language in the region. It is often regarded by linguists to be a dialect of Hindi, which is the official language of the state. People in southern Chhattisgarh, Bastar, speak dialects of Dravidian languages.

Geography
The north and south parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. Forests cover roughly forty-four percent of the state.

The northern part of the state lies on the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain: The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Kawardha Palace Kawardha Palace
The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi and its tributaries, with extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal range, part of the Satpuras, and from the plains of Orissa to the east by ranges of hills.

The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary the Indravati River.

The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. Other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk and Arpa.


History
In ancient times, this region was known as Daksin-Kausal. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalachuri(Jaiswal) and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalachuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1741 AD. Chhattisgarh was under Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947. Raipur gained prominence over the of capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in 1845. In 1905, the Sambalpur district was transferred to Odisha and the estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh. The area constituting the new state merged into on 1 November 1956, under the States Re-organization Act and remained a part of that state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of a Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old Madhya Pradesh State, with its capital at Nagpur. Prior to that, the region was part of the Central Provinces and Berar province (CP and Berar) under the British rule. Some areas constituting the Chhattisgarh state were princely states under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh. The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 2000.
Transportation
The rail network in Chattisgarh is centered on Bilaspur, which is zonal headquarters of South East Central Railway of Indian Railways. Other main railway junctions include Raipur, Durg and Champa. These junctions are well connected to all the major cities of India.

The roadways infrastructure is also slowly picking up in the state. The National Highway 6 (Bombay to Kolkata) passes through the state. The state also hosts National Highway 43 which starts from Raipur and goes up to Vishakhapatnam. National Highway 16 from Hyderabad ends at Bhopalpatnam in Dantewada district. The state has 11 National Highways (2,225 kilometres).
 
Bastar Tribes Bastar Tribes
The air infrastructure as of now in the state is minor. Raipur, the capital city, is the sole commercially operating airport of the state. However, of late, Raipur has shown huge upsurge in passenger traffic . Raipur has links to top four cities of the country i.e. Delhi (4 Flights a day), Bombay (3 Flights a day), Kolkata (2 Flights a day), and Chennai (1 Flight a day) .It is also connected to Jaipur , Indore , Nagpur , Bhubaneshwar , Ahmedabad , Vizag and Ranchi .
Culture
The people of this region are very fond of colours. The dresses they wear are all colourful. Women too wear sarees with Kardhani. In rural areas, women used to wear mala (garland) made of one rupee coins. Though this has gone out of trend these days.

The people of this region are also known for creating humour out of language. Comical plays are very popular and are worth watching. The people also have a great tendency towards adopting new trends and life styles. Chhattisgarh thus is multicultural for people from all over the world have come and settled in this region.

Chhattisgarhi people are also known for their simplicity, kind hearted ness and adaptability.

On Sundays, markets are arranged in some prominent villages. Chhattisgarh has identified and is developing ethnic villages and private sector is encouraged for proper maintenance and professional site management of important heritage sites/monuments.

The state hosts many religious sects like Satnami, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj, and others which originated as reaction to caste-based Hinduism practised by outsiders coming to the state. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town that has religious significance as the birth place of the Saint Vallabhacharya.

Chhattisgarh has a very rich Cultural heritage. Chattisgarh has its unique style of dance, cuisine, and music. This has made Chhattisgarh a favorite of anthropologists and sociologists due to its relevant profile.

Crafts
Bhoramdeo Temple Bhoramdeo Temple
One can see here decorative pieces carved on wood, Bamboo furniture, Clay pieces, idols carved on wood etc.Chhattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles, shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis.

Dance
Raut Nacha(The folk dance of cowherds), Karma, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Panthi and Soowa dance styles are few very popular dance styles in the region.

Music
Pandavani a musical narration of the epic Mahabharata, Teejan Bai, the Pandavani artist was awarded Padma Bhushan in 2003, for her contribution to Pandavani. Ritu Verma is also a well known name .
Chhattisgarh has rich traditional folk songs among which sohar, bihav & Pathoni songs are very famous.
Sohar songs are related to child birth. Bihav songs are related to marriage celebration. The main parts of Bihav songs are Chulmati, Telmati, Maymouri, Nahdouri, Parghani, Bhadoni and other songs related to Bhanver, Vidai songs.

Pathoni songs are related to Gouna that is departure of bride to bridegroom home.