Largest city :
477/km² (1,235/sq mi)
Hindi and Punjabi
Haryana is a state in north India. It was carved out of the state of Punjab in 1966. It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and Rajasthan to the west and south. Eastern border to Uttarakhand & Uttar Pradesh is defined by river Yamuna. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of Haryana is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab.
Haryana is also one of the wealthier states of India and had the second highest per capita income in the country at
138,859 in the year 2011–12 and
128,341 in the year 2012–13 including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.Haryana is one of India's most industrialized states. The city of Gurgaon is emerging as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industry. It is a leading manufacturing hub as it is also home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero Honda Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There is also an established steel and textile industry in the state of Haryana. The name Haryana itself means “The Abode of God” from Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home).
Haryana was the outermost location of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization with centers such as Banawali and Rakhigarhi. The most extensive center, Rakhigarhi, is now a village in Hissar District. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered. Haryana is no longer a part of the state of Punjab, it was for a long time part of the Punjab province of British India and played a vital role in the history of the Punjab region.
The Vedic Civilzation flourished on the banks of the now lost Saraswati River. Many settlements dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization have been found along this river bed, at Naurangabad and Mittathal in Bhiwani District, Kunal, in Fatehabad District, Agroha and Rakhigarhi in Hisar District, Rukhi in Rohtak District and Banawali in Sirsa District. The ancient Vedic civilization also flourished on the banks of the Saraswati, and the hymns of Rigveda were composed here.
The epic battle of Mahabharata is believed to be fought at Kurukshetra. Mahabharata, the great epic of India mentions Haryana as Bahudhhanyaka, 'land of plentiful grains' and Bahudhana, 'land of immense riches'. Several places mentioned in Mahabharata correspond to modern day cities in Haryana: Prithudaka (Pehowa), Tilprastha (Tilput), Panprastha (Panipat) and Sonprastha (Sonipat). Gurgaon refers to the village of the Guru Dronacharya . The great battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas took place near the city of Kurukshetra. Krishna preached the Bhagvad Gita to the reluctant Arjuna there. For eighteen days following that, armies from all over India battled in the plains of Kurukshetra to decide who sits on the throne of Hastinapura. Maharaja Agrasen is said to have established a flourishing city of merchants at Agroha near modern Hisar. Legend has it that anyone wishing to settle in the city was given a brick and a rupee by each of the city's lakh residents. Thus, they would have enough bricks to build a house and enough money to start a business of their own.
After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom disintegrated. The region, however, remained strategically important for the rulers of Delhi, as it lay in the path of invaders from the northwest. Prithviraj Chauhan established a fort at Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region.
The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. This battle marked the beginning of the Mughal empire in India. In the second battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar's general Bairam Khan defeated Hemu, and paved the way for Akbar's reign. The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan and the Maratha Empire Durrani Empire won decisively onJanuary 13, 1761.
During the British Raj, most of Haryana was rcognised as part of the Punjab province. Some parts were ruled by the princely states of Loharu, Nabha, Jind and Patiala. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram, participated actively. Later, leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram played an important role in the politics of the Punjab province.
Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is located between 27°37' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 2 kilometres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km² is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.
- The Yamuna Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
- The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
- The Aravalli Range in the south
- Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
The majority of the state is an agricultural plain, with the southern and western edge being more dry and arid. the plain of Haryana is also known for water divider of the himalyan rivers.